What is Uniswap and how does it work?



For an extended period, centralized cryptocurrency exchanges have stood as the cornerstone of the market. Their advantages encompassed swift trading operations, substantial trade volumes, and the perpetual expansion of liquidity. Nonetheless, in parallel to this, an alternative universe thrived, one founded on the principles of decentralization. Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) emerged as platforms that bypassed intermediaries, entrusting the safekeeping of funds to their participants.

Crafting decentralized exchanges capable of challenging their centralized counterparts has been an intricate endeavor, due to the constraints of blockchain technology. Many DEXs grappled with deficiencies in both performance and user-friendliness.

In this quest for novel methodologies in developing decentralized exchanges, Uniswap surfaced as a pioneer. Uniswap operates on a distinctive model compared to conventional DEXs, and its intrinsic value becomes increasingly apparent as it unveils significant advantages.

Uniswap has ascended to the upper echelons of success within the decentralized finance (DeFi) realm, driven by its innovative approaches.

Let's embark on a more profound exploration of the Uniswap protocol, its unique operational intricacies, and how users can partake in token exchange utilizing an Ethereum wallet.

What is Uniswap?

Uniswap stands as a decentralized exchange protocol designed within the Ethereum ecosystem. To be more precise, it operates as an automated liquidity protocol. It is crucial to underline that Uniswap functions without the necessity for a centralized order book or any intermediary structure. This protocol empowers users to conduct asset exchanges devoid of intermediaries while upholding a high level of decentralization and resistance to censorship.

Uniswap is an open-source software, and its repository is accessible on GitHub under Uniswap.

However, the question arises: how is it feasible to engage in trading without the presence of an order book? Uniswap deploys a groundbreaking model, wherein liquidity providers establish liquidity pools. This framework establishes a decentralized pricing mechanism that distinguishes itself from conventional order books. We will delve deeper into this process, but it's pivotal to retain the understanding that, at this juncture, users can swap ERC-20 tokens on Uniswap without requiring perusal of an order book.

Given Uniswap's status as a decentralized protocol, there is no demand for the token to undergo a formal "listing" process. In essence, the inclusion of any ERC-20 token becomes plausible when an applicable liquidity pool exists. A significant point to highlight is that Uniswap does not impose any fees for listing tokens. This attribute positions the Uniswap protocol as a type of "public good."

The Uniswap protocol was established by Hayden Adams in 2018, but it's noteworthy to acknowledge that the technology underpinning it was originally introduced by Vitalik Buterin, one of Ethereum's co-founders.

How Uniswap Operates

Uniswap stands out as a protocol that sets itself apart from the traditional exchange and order book models. It operates on the basis of the "Constant Product Market Maker" model, a unique variant of the "Automated Market Maker" (AMM) concept.

AMMs serve as smart contracts equipped with liquidity reserves, allowing users to engage in trading activities. Liquidity providers are the ones who finance these reserves, and the beauty of Uniswap is that anyone can become a liquidity provider by depositing an equivalent value of two tokens into a liquidity pool. As transactions occur, traders pay fees to the liquidity pool, and these fees are subsequently distributed amongst liquidity providers based on their individual contributions.

Liquidity providers who create these pools are responsible for depositing the value of two tokens, which can include, for instance, ETH and ERC-20 tokens. In return for their deposits, liquidity providers are issued "liquidity tokens," serving as tokens representing their respective share within the pool. These liquidity tokens are tradable and can be exchanged for a stake in the pool.

Uniswap's core principle revolves around maintaining a constant product of the quantity of each token within a pool. This principle translates to the fact that the total liquidity in the pool remains a constant. The mathematical formula underpinning this principle is denoted as x * y = k, where x signifies the quantity of one token in the pool, y represents the quantity of another token in the pool, and k remains a constant product.

During a transaction, such as the purchase of ETH using USDT, the pool's balance is subject to alteration as the quantity of USDT increases while the quantity of ETH decreases. This dynamic shift effectively raises the price of ETH due to a reduced supply of ETH in the pool, yet it keeps the product k constant. This fundamental change in the relationship between x and y directly influences the price.

It is crucial to bear in mind that Uniswap's model doesn't scale linearly. Larger transactions trigger more pronounced adjustments in the balance between x and y, making them relatively more expensive in terms of price compared to smaller transactions. Consequently, augmenting liquidity within the pool serves as an effective means to mitigate slippage when managing substantial transactions by minimizing the deviation between x and y. Uniswap's innovative approach and unique AMM model have revolutionized decentralized exchanges and decentralized finance.

Uniswap v3: Technological Evolution and Key Advancements

The technology that underlies Uniswap has undergone several iterations. If you've ever used Uniswap, it was most likely Uniswap v2. However, the world of technology is continually evolving, so let's now explore the key innovations in Uniswap v3.

Efficient Capital Utilization

One of the significant changes in Uniswap v3 is the improvement in capital efficiency. Most Automated Market Makers (AMMs) suffer from capital inefficiency, where substantial funds remain unused. This is due to the x*y=k model mentioned earlier. In simple terms, the more liquidity in the pool, the more orders the system can support across a wide range of prices.

Individual Price Ranges

In Uniswap v3, liquidity providers (LPs) can now customize individual price ranges in which they wish to provide liquidity. This allows them to concentrate liquidity within price ranges where the most trading activity occurs. In essence, Uniswap v3 provides a straightforward way to create on-chain order books on Ethereum, where market makers can make decisions about providing liquidity within their chosen price ranges.

NFT Tokens for LP Positions

The uniqueness of each LP position in Uniswap v3 means that each one is represented as a non-fungible token (NFT). This opens up new possibilities for using LP positions in other parts of the DeFi ecosystem. In Uniswap v2, LP tokens could be used in protocols such as Aave or MakerDAO as collateral. However, in Uniswap v3, this is not possible due to the uniqueness of each position.

Uniswap on Layer 2

The increase in transaction fees on Ethereum over the past year has made using Uniswap economically unviable for many users with limited funds. In response to this, Uniswap v3 will be deployed on a Layer 2 scaling solution called "Optimistic rollup." This is a reliable method of scaling smart contracts in a secure Ethereum environment, which should increase transaction throughput and reduce fees for users.

What is Impermanent Loss?

Impermanent loss is a concept associated with recently added liquidity to Automated Market Maker (AMM) pools, such as those provided by Uniswap. This phenomenon arises due to differences in the price changes between two assets in the pool.

Suppose you have an AMM pool consisting of two assets, for example, ETH and USDT, and you have deposited an equal amount of both assets into the pool to provide liquidity. It's important to note that in an AMM pool, the price of assets depends on their relative quantities. If the price of ETH increases relative to USDT, the balance in the pool is disrupted, and you start losing money, which is referred to as impermanent loss.

The reason for this loss is that as the price of ETH rises, many arbitrageurs buy ETH from the pool at a lower price than on the market and sell it on the market at a higher price to restore the pool's balance. This process increases the amount of USDT in your pool but reduces the amount of ETH, ultimately resulting in a loss of profit.

When you withdraw funds from the pool, you may notice that your asset balance has changed, and this change can be either positive or negative, depending on the movement of asset prices in the pool.

Impermanent loss is one of the drawbacks of providing liquidity in AMM pools, and it can be exacerbated during rapid changes in asset prices. Liquidity providers should take this factor into account and analyze their potential losses before deciding to provide liquidity in such pools.

How Does Uniswap Generate Revenue?

Uniswap is a decentralized protocol supported by Paradigm, a cryptocurrency-focused hedge fund. All fees go to liquidity providers, and none of the founders receive a percentage of the transactions conducted through the protocol.

Currently, the transaction fee for liquidity providers is set at 0.3% of the transaction amount. By default, the earned fees are added to the liquidity pool, but liquidity providers can withdraw them at any time. Fees are distributed according to the share of each liquidity provider in the pool.

A portion of the fees may be allocated for future Uniswap development. The Uniswap team has already released an enhanced version of the protocol called Uniswap v2.

How to Utilize Uniswap

To make use of Uniswap, adhere to these guidelines:

  1. Navigate to the Uniswap user interface, which can be accessed through https://app.uniswap.org or https://uniswap.exchange.

  2. Establish a connection with your Ethereum wallet. You can utilize MetaMask, Trust Wallet, or another Ethereum wallet that is supported. Follow the provided instructions on the platform to link your wallet.

  3. Opt for the token you wish to exchange (for selling).

  4. Select the token you desire in exchange for your initial token (for buying).

  5. Initiate the exchange by clicking on the "Swap" button.

  6. Carefully inspect the transaction specifics in the pop-up dialog. Verify the accuracy of the amounts and other particulars.

  7. Validate the execution of the transaction using your wallet. Depending on your wallet, you may be required to confirm using a password or biometric data.

  8. Await confirmation of your transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. To monitor the status of the transaction, you can visit the website https://etherscan.io/.

Upon completing these actions, your transaction will be processed, and you will obtain the tokens you designated in exchange for your initial tokens. It's essential to comprehend the procedure and the potential risks associated with cryptocurrency trading on Uniswap before proceeding.

Uniswap Token (UNI)

UNI token is the proprietary token associated with the Uniswap protocol, conferring upon its holders the ability to engage in the governance of the Uniswap ecosystem. UNI holders possess the authority to cast votes in favor of or against proposed changes and enhancements to the Uniswap protocol, making them integral to the decision-making process for its future evolution.

Initially, a total of 1 billion UNI tokens were minted. Out of this overall supply, 60% were allocated among the existing members of the Uniswap community. The remaining 40% is designated for the Uniswap team members, investors, and advisors, with a gradual vesting period spanning four years.

A segment of UNI tokens is also apportioned to the community engaged in liquidity mining on various Uniswap pools, including:





To be eligible for acquiring UNI tokens, active involvement in the Uniswap community and interaction with the protocol's smart contracts are required. UNI tokens not only bestow voting privileges but also incentivize active community participation and liquidity provisioning within Uniswap pools.


Uniswap stands as an innovative exchange protocol built on the Ethereum network. This protocol empowers users with Ethereum wallets to swap tokens directly with each other, eliminating the need for centralized intermediaries.

Despite some inherent limitations, Uniswap offers significant advantages, especially in the realm of trustless token exchange. With the anticipated implementation of Ethereum 2.0 scaling solutions, Uniswap is likely to gain new features and improvements, making it an even more robust and effective tool in the world of decentralized finance.